kanjani ukutshala i-paddy ngokuphumelelayo-ukutshala ilayisi nolwazi lokugaya irayisi

Usuku:2019/03/21
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Ilayisi ukudla okuyisisekelo kubantu abaningi emhlabeni nsuku zonke. ine-acreage ebanzi kakhulu emhlabeni. Ngaphezu kokudla, nelayisi lingasetshenziswa futhi njengezinto ezingavuthiwe zokwenziwa kwewayini ,futhi njengezinto zokusetshenziswa kwezimboni ekwenzeni ushukela, ama-husks welayisi kanye nezindebe zerayisi zingondla izinkukhu. Ilayisi esezingeni eliphakeme linesidingo esiphakeme emakethe. Kwezinye izindawo zamazwe amaningi, cishe wonke amakhaya okutshala paddy irayisi. Ngenjwayelo, kuzothatha izinyanga ezi-4 ~ 5 ukusuka ekutshalweni kuya esikhathini esikhulako sokuvuna, indlela yokutshala irayisi esezingeni eliphakeme futhi ephezulu ngesikhathi sokukhula?

1.Khetha izinhlobo ezihamba phambili ezifanelana nesimo sakho sokukhula

Izinhlobonhlobo ezifanele kunazo zonke izidingo zomlimi womhlangano omuhle kakhulu nezomthengi. Kungenzeka ihlale inganikeli isivuno esikhulu kakhulu futhi izothonywa uhlobo lomhlabathi, nokuphakama kwensimu, isimo sezulu kanye nesinye isizathu.

Lapho ukhetha izinhlobonhlobo hlola okulandelayo:

Isikhathi sokuzala • Izinhlobo zezikhathi ezide (160 izinsuku futhi isikhathi eside) ilungele izindawo ezinamanzi noma izindawo ezivame ukuba nezikhukhula • Izinhlobo zezikhathi eziphakathi nendawo (120-140 izinsuku) ilungele zombili izindawo ezinemvula nezoniselwa • Izinhlobo zezikhathi ezimfushane (ngaphansi kwe 120 izinsuku) zilungele izindawo ezithambekele kwisomiso noma ukutshala okuphindwe kabili.

Ukuphakama kwezitshalo • Izinhlobo ezinde (1.4 m futhi mude) alungele izinkundla ezivame ukukhukhula kanye nezindawo ezingafakwanga, indawo yokuhlala ingaba yinkinga. • Izinhlobo eziphakeme eziphakathi nendawo (1–1.2 m) zilungele izindawo eziningi futhi azihlaselwa ukungena lapho kusetshenziswa umanyolo. • Izinhlobo ezimfushane zilungele kangcono amasimu wamazinga ikakhulukazi ezindaweni eziniselwa.

Ziyasabela kumanyolo futhi imvamisa zingaphansi 1 m ukuphakama. Izinhlobo kufanele zikhethwe ngokususelwa kumandla omuhle wesivuno, ukumelana nezifo, izimfanelo ezinhle zokudla, isivuno esikhulu sokugaya, futhi zilungele imakethe.Ikhwalithi yamarayisi emhlophe nokunambitheka kungeniswa ngaphakathi emakethe. imvamisa ikhokhela izinhlobo ezinephunga elimnandi, kepha isivuno sihlala siphansi. irayisi ephekiwe ithambile futhi ukunambitheka okumnandi kudumile emakethe.

2.Sebenzisa imbewu enhle kakhulu

Imbewu enhle:

  • Hlanza ngaphandle kwamatshe, inhlabathi, noma imbewu yokhula;
  • I-Pure equkethe okusanhlamvu okuhlukahlukene
  • Unempilo yokuba nezinhlamvu ezinkulu ezigcwele zombala ofanayo kungabikho imifantu noma ibala.

Imbewu esezingeni eliphakeme ingathengwa njengembewu eqinisekisiwe noma ekhiqizwe ngumlimi. Imbewu esezingeni eliphakeme yehlisa isilinganiso esidingekayo sokuhlwanyelwa futhi ikhiqiza iqine, izithombo ezinempilo, kuholele isivuno esilingana kakhulu nezithelo eziphakeme. Ngemuva kokuvunwa konyaka owedlule ,umlimi kufanele alungiselele imbewu ye-paddy .

ungayikhetha kanjani imbewu enhle ye-paddy ?

  1. Khetha inkambu yezinga enamabhadi agcinwe kahle nokufinyelela kalula. 2. Sebenzisa okuhlanzekile, msulwa, nembewu enempilo. 3. Yenza isivivinyo sokuntanta embewini ngaphambi kokutshala bese ususa noma yiziphi izimbewu ezintantayo. 4. Sebenzisa izindlela ezinhle zokuphatha ngokutshala ngesikhathi, ukusebenzisa Umanyolo, ukhula ngaphambili 21 izinsuku ngemuva kokusungulwa, nokungavumeli ukhula luye ezinhlanyelweni. 5. Hambisa amasimu ngokususa zonke izitshalo zerayisi ezibonakala zihlukile phakathi kwezitshalo, izimbali, kanye nezigaba zokugcwalisa okusanhlamvu. 6. Vuna ekuvuthweni okugcwele lapho ama-80-85% okusanhlamvu enombala otshanini noma kumswakama wama-21-22%. 7. Qoqa bese womile ngokushesha ngemuva kokuvuna. 8. Gcina imbewu ngokuphepha bese ufaka ilebula iziqukathi noma izikhwama ezinamagama ahlukahlukene nosuku lokuvuna.

3.Hlanza amasimu futhi ulungiselele kahle ngaphambi kokutshala

Umlimi kufanele alime masinyane ngemuva kokuvuna kwangaphambili - ikakhulukazi uma inhlabathi isamanzi.

Ukulima kokuqala noma okuphambili. Sebenzisa i-disc noma i-moldboard plows ukubulala ukhula futhi ufake izinsalela zezitshalo, okungcono amasonto ama-8-8 ngaphambi kokutshala ngokujula okuphezulu kwe 10 cm.

Ukulima kwesibili. Shaya ngensimu yonke nge-disc noma i-tin harrow okungenani kabili ukwenza amasayizi amancane we-clod. Ukulima kwesibili kufanele kube amasonto ama-2-3 ngaphambi kokutshala nokugcina kokugcina 1 Isonto ngaphambi kokutshala ngokujula okuphezulu kwamasentimitha angama-5-7,5. Ukulungisa izinqwaba, chitha imigoqo yegundane, lungisa noma yiziphi izimbobo kanye nemifantu, futhi buyisela izqwaba. Amabhande kufanele okungenani 0.5 m phezulu futhi 1 m ububanzi.Insimu elungiselelwe kahle neleveziwe inika umfaniswano, isivuno esinempilo esingancintisana nokhula, sebenzisa amanzi amancane, futhi unikeze okuthe xaxa ngentengo ephansi. Inkambu elungiselelwe kahle ine: Izingubo eziningi ezincane zenhlabathi ukunikeza ukuxhumana okuhle kwenhlabathi - usayizi wama-clod nosayizi wembewu kuyafana; Akukho ukhula; Hard plowlayer at 10 cm ukumisa ukungena kwamanzi;Izinga nendawo ephezulu ngemuva kokusebenza; nezinqwaba ezakhiwe Kahle.Ukushiya insimu kuzonikeza ukumbozwa kwamanzi okungcono, ukusungulwa kwezilimo ezingcono, nokulawulwa kokhula okungcono. Ukudonswa kwenhlabathi kufanele kwenziwe okungenani ezinsukwini ezi-1-2 ngaphambi kokuhlwanyelwa ukuvumela amanzi ukuthi acwebe lapho sekuhluma imbewu ngqo.

4.Tshala ngesikhathi

Ukutshala isivuno ngesikhathi kuzosiza ukuthi sikhule ngokushesha, umvuno ofanayo ozoba nezithelo eziphakeme futhi uzokwazi kangcono ukuncintisana nokhula nezinambuzane. Isikhathi esihle sokutshala sincike endaweni, okuhlukahlukene, ukutholakala kwamanzi, nesikhathi sokuvuna esihle kunazo zonke. Ilayisi lingadluliselwa kusuka e-nursery noma ekuhlwanyelweni ngqo ensimini. Izilimo ezidluliselwe kwesinye isikhathi zivame ukuthatha isikhathi esincane ensimini yokukhiqiza kepha izinsuku eziyi-10–15 isikhathi eside sesikhathi sezilimo. Ezimweni zombili, kudingeka umbhede wembewu olungiselelwe kahle.

Ensimini Yokwenza imbewu ngqo:

  1. Lungisa insimu ngokulima okungenani kabili bese ihlawula kube kanye qhathanisa usayizi wembewu nosayizi wama-clod.
  2. Linganisa ingaphezulu lomhlabathi.
  3. Faka isicelo bese ufaka umanyolo we-basal ngaphambi kokulima kokugcina noma 10 izinsuku ngemuva kokusungulwa.

Ukutshala imbewu okuqondile:

  1. Ukuhluma kuqala kwembewu. Cwilisa imbewu ye 24 amahora bese uyayihlanza 24 amahora emthunzini ngaphambi kokusakaza ngokulinganayo phezu kwenhlabathi embozwe ngamanzi.
  2. Sakaza imbewu ekhulwe ngaphambi kwesikhathi 100 kg / ha
  3. Vumela amanzi angaphezulu ukuthi agxobhoze noma anqamule ngokwemvelo enhlabathini
  4. Gcina indawo engaphezulu yomhlabathi ngokungeza amanzi
  5. Faka amanzi anaphakade ezinsukwini eziyi-10- 10 ngemuva kokusungulwa noma ngo-2-3- isiteji seqabunga.
  6. Faka umanyolo we-basal ngemuva kokuthi kufakwe amanzi anaphakade.

Ukomisa imbewu ngokuqondile

  1. Isakaza imbewu eyomile at 100 kg / ha noma imbewu yokushayela yomshini lapho 80 kg / ha kanye 20 mm ukujula
  2. Faka umanyolo we-basal ngokusebenzisa imishini yokumba
  3. Mboza imbewu yokusakaza nomanyolo ngokuhluthula okukhanyayo
  4. Isikhukhula seFlash kuze 15 ezinsukwini ngemuva kokuvela noma isigaba seqabunga esi-2 bese engeza amanzi angapheli.

Ukulima okutshalwe kabusha

  1. Khetha indawo enkulisa ethi 1/10 ngosayizi wendawo okuhloswe kuyo ukutshala.
  2. Lungisa i-nursery ngokulima okungenani kabili bese ugoba okungenani kanye.
  3. Hlela indawo yomhlabathi bese ubeka imigqa yokudonsa enqamula ensimini.
  4. Ngaphambi kokuhluma nokutshala. Cwilisa imbewu ye 24 amahora bese uyayihlanza 24 amahora emthunzini. Sakaza imbewu enkulisa ngokulinganayo, ngaphezulu kwenhlabathi ethola amanzi.
  5. Faka imbewu: 30–40 kg imbewu / ha indawo eyotshalwe kabusha.
  6. Faka umanyolo womanyolo wamakhemikhali kanye nowokuphola enkundleni ngaphambi kokulima kokugcina.
  7. Ukudlulisa ubudala: izinhlobo zesikhathi esifushane esidingayo 20-30 izinsuku nezinhlobonhlobo zesikhathi eside zidinga 20-40 izinsuku enkulisa ngemuva kokutshala.
  8. Dlulisa ngemigqa ube ngamasimu afakwe amanzi futhi ambozwe amanzi.
  9. Gcina ukumbozwa kwamanzi

5.Ukhula kusenesikhathi

Ukhula luyancintisana ngqo nezitshalo zerayisi futhi lunciphise isivuno selayisi. Ngayinye 1 kg into eyomile yokhula ilingana 1 kg ukulahleka okusanhlamvu. Ukhula lubangela ukulahleka kwesivuno esikhulu ezinsukwini zokuqala ezingama-20-50 emva kokusungulwa kwezilimo. Ukhula ngemuva kokuqalwa kokuthuka kungabalulekile futhi ukuvikela ukhula olulala imbewu ezitshalweni ezizayo.

Ukuphathwa kokhula okusebenzayo

  • Ukulima nokuhlikihla ku-fallow kufanele kwenziwe okungenani izinsuku eziyi-10 - 14 ngokwahlukana noma ngemuva kwemvula.
  • Ukumiswa komhlaba okuhle kunciphisa ukukhula kokhula ngoba iningi lokhula linenkinga yokuhluma ngaphansi kwamanzi.
  • Khetha izinhlobo ezinamandla asenesikhathi.
  • Sebenzisa imbewu yerayisi ehlanzekile engenambewu yokhula.
  • Faka amanzi kusenesikhathi - ukhula ngeke lukhule ngaphansi kwamanzi.
  • Ukhula kuqala luqala kungakapheli amasonto ama-2-3 selusunguliwe nolwesibili kwamanye amasonto ama-2-3. Ukhula ngaphambi kwesicelo somanyolo.
  • Kusetshenziswa ukubulala ukhula. Khombisa ukhula ngendlela efanele bese usebenzisa ukhula oluhlaza wokubulala ukhula njengoba kunconywa kwilebula. • Fafaza lapho ukhula luncane.
  • Faka isicelo sokubulala ukhula ngaphambi kokusungulwa ngaphambi kokusungulwa.
  • Faka umuthi wokubulala ukhula ngemuva kokuvela uqaphela ngomonakalo wezilimo.
  • Ama-herbicides anobuthi; uma zingasetshenziswa kahle zingadala izinkinga zempilo nezemvelo. Faka ilebuli ngokucacile futhi uyigcine ingafinyeleleki ezinganeni. • Sebenzisa njalo izingubo zokuvikela lapho ufafaza.
  • Musa ukugqoka izimvula zemvula lapho ufafaza njengoba lokhu kukhulisa umjuluko.

6.Umanyolo ngesikhathi

Inhlabathi eningi inikezela ngezilinganiso ezinqunyelwe zomsoco esithelweni, ngakho-ke umanyolo kudingeka ukuthi usetshenziselwe ukukhulisa isivuno sokusanhlamvu. Kwezinye izimo, Umanyolo futhi uyangezwa ukuthuthukisa isimo somhlabathi somhlabathi. Inani nohlobo lomanyolo olusetshenzisiwe lunqunywa kumcabango wokuthi 1 ithoni yokusanhlamvu izosusa 15 kg nitrogen (N), 2–3 kg phosphorus (P), kanye ne-15-20 kg potaziyamu (K). Amanani la asisekelo adinga ukuguqulwa ngokuya ngohlobo lomhlabathi, inkathi, isimo sesitshalo, isimo sezulu esikhona, kanye nokusebenza kahle kokusebenza. Ukusetshenziswa kahle komanyolo:

  • Sebenzisa umanyolo we-organic (umquba, umquba, utshani, khumbula, amaqabunga ezitshalo) noma nini lapho kungenzeka, ikakhulukazi ezinkulisa.
  • Faka umanyolo ngohlobo lomhlabathi kanye nesivuno esilindelekile. Njengomhlahlandlela, a 2 isivuno se-t / ha kumhlabathi wobumba oluzodingeka 20 kg N futhi 5 kg P. Izinhlabathi ezinesihlabathi zingadinga enye i-10-16 kg K. Phinda lezi zincomo ze 3 t / ha isivuno esilindelekile.
  • Faka konke P, K, futhi 10% N ngokulinganayo futhi ufake ngaphambi nje kokutshala noma ukufakelwa. Ngokuthola izitshalo ezisakazwa imbewu eqondile, kulungile ukusebenzisa izinsuku eziyi-10- 10 ngemuva kokusungulwa lapho kunamanzi ensimini.
  • Faka isicelo esisele N (urea) in 2 izingxenye ezilinganayo ku- 30 izinsuku nezinsuku ezingama-50-60 (ukwethuka ukuqala) ngemuva kokuvela. • Ezilwanyweni ezisunguliwe, Faka umanyolo wamakhemikhali kuphela emanzini amile futhi ngokulinganayo kuyo yonke insimu.
  • Musa ukufaka amanani aphezulu womanyolo wezinhlobo zendabuko njengoba zingaba nokuphendula okulinganiselwe futhi zibangele indawo yokuhlala.
  • Ungasebenzisi umanyolo wamakhemikhali uma udinga okungaphezulu 5 kg paddy ukukhokhela 1 kg yomanyolo. • Umanyolo ongakhi kufanele ugcinwe endaweni eyomile neyindawo epholile engafinyeleleki ezinganeni.

7.Ukulawulwa kwezinambuzane okusebenzayo kanye nokulawula izifo

Abalimi balahlekelwa yisilinganiso esiphakathi 37% isivuno sabo selayisi ezinambuzaneni nasezifo minyaka yonke. Ngaphezu kokuphathwa kwezitshalo ezinhle, ukuxilongwa ngesikhathi nangendlela efanele kunganciphisa kakhulu ukulahleka. Ukulawula okungcono kakhulu kwezinambuzane nezinkinga zezifo ukuvimbela. Ukunciphisa umkhawulo wezinambuzane nezifo esitshalweni selayisi, izincomo ezilandelayo zingalandelwa:

  1. Prakthiza ukuhlanza okuhle kwemishini.
  2. Hlanza insimu phakathi kwezinkathi ngokuphatha iziqu namarato, nangokugcina & ukulungisa izinqwaba.
  3. Sebenzisa imbewu ehlanzekile nezinhlobo eziphikisayo. • Kunikezwe imbewu eqinisekisiwe. Uma imbewu eqinisekisiwe ayitholakali, Sebenzisa imbewu ehlanzekile engenazo imbewu encibilikile, imbewu yokhula noma ezinye izinhlobo zerayisi ezixutshwe. • Sebenzisa amasimu wesikhathi esifushane futhi aqinile ukumelana nezinambuzane.
  4. Tshala ngasikhathi sinye nomakhelwane bakho (noma ngaphakathi a 2 iwindi lesonto) ukunciphisa izinambuzane, isifo, inyoni, kanye nengcindezi yokulinganisa emasimini ngamunye.
  5. Musa ngaphezulu kokufaka Umanyolo. Ukulandela izincomo zomanyolo ezithile kubalulekile ngoba i-nitrogen ephezulu ingakhuphula amandla ezinambuzane nasezifo ezithile.
  6. Khuthaza izitha zezinambuzane zemvelo. • Ukusetshenziswa ngokweqile kwezibulala-zinambuzane kuvamile kubalimi futhi kungaholela ekuqubukeni kwezinambuzane. • Izitha zemvelo zezilokazane zerayisi zibulawa lapho kufakwa imithi yokubulala izinambuzane okungaholela ekuqubukeni kwezinambuzane.
  7. Musa ukusebenzisa isibulala-zinambuzane ngaphakathi 40 izinsuku zokutshala. • Izilimo zamarayisi zingalulama kumonakalo wokuqala ngaphandle kokuthinta isivuno. • Thola imininingwane efanele ngezifo ezithile ezidinga ukuphathwa kusenesikhathi. Uma kunezinambuzane noma izifo ezifweni ezitshalweni, kubalulekile ukuthola inkinga ngokunembile. Usizo ngokuxilongwa, funa izeluleko kochwepheshe.
  8. Lapho unquma ukusebenzisa amakhemikhali ukulawula izinambuzane nokulawula izifo, kubalulekile: • Sebenzisa imishini yokufafaza egcinwe kahle ebalwe kahle; • Sebenzisa umthamo onconywe ngumenzi; futhi • Landela izinyathelo zokuphepha zokuxuba nezicelo zokufafaza.

8.Vuna ngesikhathi

Ukuvuna isivuno ngesikhathi kubaluleke kakhulu ukwandisa isivuno nekhwalithi yokusanhlamvu. Izilimo ezivunwe ekuseni kakhulu zizoba nezinhlamvu eziningi ezingafakwanga futhi ezingavuthiwe.Izinhlamvu eziphukile ziqhekeka kalula lapho zigaywe futhi zingathengiswa emakethe. Uma izilimo zivunwa sekwephuzile, ukulahleka kakhulu kuzokwenzeka ngokuhlakazeka nokuhlaselwa yinyoni. Ikhwalithi nayo izoncipha ngenxa yesimo sezulu sokusanhlamvu, kuholele ekuqhekekeni nasekunciphiseni ngenxa yombala wokusanhlamvu ongathandeki. Izilimo kufanele zivunwe lapho:

  • Umswakama wokusanhlamvu uphakathi kuka-20-22%, evame mayelana 30 izinsuku ngemuva zom;
  • 80–85% okusanhlamvu kuhlanganisiwe;
  • Izithelo ezingxenyeni engezansi yepaneli zilukhuni, ayithambile; futhi
  • Amabele aqinile kepha awaphuki kalula lapho ehlanganiswa phakathi kwamazinyo.

Ngemuva kokusika, wandise ikhwalithi yokusanhlamvu ngo:

  • Ukuqinisekisa ukuthi ama-panicles awathinti phansi noma alale emanzini;
  • Ukunciphisa isikhathi lapho ama-panicles asikiwe ahlala kuzinqwaba ezinkulu ensimini - abhula ngaphakathi 24 amahora wokusika;
  • Ukomisa okusanhlamvu ngokushesha okukhulu ngemuva kokubhula;
  • Ukuguqula noma ukuvusa okusanhlamvu okungenani kanye ngehora lapho ilanga lomile ukufeza ukomiswa okufana;
  • Ukushisa kwelanga kuma-tarpaulins noma emaphashini omile wokuhlanza;
  • Ukugcina ubukhulu bokusanhlamvu okusanhlamvu ku-3-5 cm;
  • Ukumboza okusanhlamvu ngezinsuku ezishisayo phakathi nosuku kosuku ukuvimbela ukufudumala ngokweqile, ukumboza ngokushesha uma kuqala ukuna;
  • Ukuhlanza okusanhlamvu ngokuwula okuphindaphindwayo ngemuva kokoma; Ukugcina irayisi kupholile, yomile, nendawo ehlanzekile - okungcono ezitsheni eziboshwe uphawu zembewu.

Esikhathini sokukhula selayisi ,umlimi udinga i-plant paddy science.it kuyadingeka ukukhetha izinhlobo ezinokumelana nezifo eziqinile ngokuya ngezimo zangempela zendawo, kanye nokuqinisekisa ubukhona bokuzala kanye nomsebenzi onamandla wokutshala ngokwesikhathi esithile sokutshala. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, izithombo, umanyolo nokunisela kufanele kwenziwe kahle ngokusho ukukhula okungokoqobo okungaqikelela ukwanda kwesivuno selayisi nekhwalithi.