ukutyala ngempumelelo i-paddy-ukutyala irayisi kunye nolwazi lokugaya irayisi

Umhla:2019/03/21
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Ilayisi kukutya okuyimfuneko kubantu abaninzi emhlabeni mihla le. ine-acreage ebanzi kakhulu emhlabeni. Ukongeza edible, Irayisi ingasetyenziswa njengesixhobo esikrwada ekwenzeni iwayini ,nanjengezinto zokwenza izinto eziluhlaza ekwenzeni iswekile, ii-husk zerayisi kunye neendiza zerayisi zingatya kwiinkukhu. Umgangatho ophezulu welayisi uneemfuno eziphezulu ezivenkileni. Kweminye imimandla yamazwe amaninzi, phantse yonke indawo yokutyala i-paddy irayisi. Nje, Kuya kuthatha malunga neenyanga ezi-4 ~ 5 ukusuka ekutyalweni ukuya kwixesha lokukhula kwesivuno, ukutyala njani irayisi esemgangathweni ophezulu kunye nexabiso eliphakamileyo ngexesha lokukhula?

1.Khetha olona hlobo lufanelekileyo oluhambelana nemeko okhulayo

Olona hlobo lufanelekileyo lolona hlobo lufanelekileyo lokudibana kunye neemfuno zabathengi. Ingasoloko inika isivuno esiphezulu kwaye iya kuphenjelelwa luhlobo lomhlaba, kunye nokuphakama kwensimu, imozulu kunye nesinye isizathu.

Xa ukhetha iindidi jonga oku kulandelayo:

Ixesha lokudalwa kwezityalo • Iindidi zexesha elide (160 imihla nangaphezulu) zilungele iindawo ezinkcenkceshelwayo okanye iindawo ezithandwa zizikhukula (120Iintsuku ezingama-140) zilungele zombini iindawo ezinemvula kunye nezinkcenkceshelayo • Iindidi zexesha elifutshane (ngaphantsi ko 120 iintsuku) zilungele iindawo ezinengxaki yembalela okanye yokulima kabini.

Ukuphakama kwezityalo • Iindidi ezinde (1.4 m kwaye mde) zilungele iindawo ezikhukuliswayo ngumhlaba nezandyondyo, indawo yokuhlala inokuba yingxaki. Iindidi eziphakathi eziphakathi (1-1.2 m) zilungele iindawo ezininzi kwaye azichaphazeli kwindawo yokufaka xa kusetyenziswa isichumisi. Iindidi ezimfutshane zilungele amabakala amanqanaba ikakhulu kwiindawo ezinkcenkceshelwayo.

Ziyaphendula kwizichumisi kwaye zihlala ziphantsi kunokuba 1 m ukuphakama. Iindidi kufuneka zikhethwe ngokusekwe kwisivuno esihle, ukuxhathisa isifo, iimpawu ezintle zokutya, isivuno esiphezulu sokugaya, kwaye zilungele ukuthengisa.Umgangatho yerayisi emhlophe kunye nokunambitheka kungeniswa ngaphakathi kwimarike. ihlala ihlawulelwa iintlobo ezinuka kamnandi, kodwa izivuno zihlala ziphantsi. irayisi ephekiweyo ithambile kwaye incasa emnandi ithandwa kakhulu kwimarike.

2.Sebenzisa imbewu esemgangathweni

Imbewu elungileyo yile:

  • Ukucocwa kungekho matye, umhlaba, okanye imbewu yokhula;
  • Icocekile equlathe iintlobo ezahlukeneyo
  • Ukuba sempilweni ngokufumana ingqolowa ezinkulu ezikhulu ezinombala ofanayo ngaphandle kwamabala okanye amabala.

Imbewu ekumgangatho ophezulu inokuthengwa njengembewu eqinisekisiweyo okanye eveliswe ngumlimi. Imbewu esemgangathweni ophezulu inciphisa umgangatho wokuhlwayela ofunekayo kwaye ivelise yomelele, izithole ezinempilo, kukhokelela kwisityalo esifana kakhulu nesivuno esikhulu.Mva kokuvunwa konyaka ophelileyo ,umlimi kufuneka alungiselele imbewu ye-paddy .

Ungayikhetha njani imbewu elungileyo ye-paddy ?

  1. Khetha umhlaba okwinqanaba elinemigangatho egcinwe kakuhle kunye nokufikelela ngokulula. 2. Sebenzisa ukucoceka, icocekile, nembewu esempilweni. 3. Yenza uvavanyo lokudada phezu kwembewu ngaphambi kokutyala kwaye ususe nayiphi na imbewu edadayo. 4. Sebenzisa iindlela ezilungileyo zokulawula ngokutyala ngexesha, ukusebenzisa isichumisi, ukhula ngaphambili 21 kwiintsuku emva kokusekwa, nokungavumeli ukhula luye kwimbewu. 5. Hambisa amasimi ngokususa zonke izityalo zerayisi ezibonakala ngokucacileyo zahlukile ngexesha lokuhluma, iintyatyambo, kunye nezigaba zokugcwalisa iinkozo. 6. Ukuvunwa kokuvuthwa okugcweleyo xa ama-80-85% engqolowa enombala onombala okanye kubushushu obuyi-21-22%. 7. Qalela kwaye womile ngokukhawuleza emva kokuvuna. 8. Gcina imbewu ngokukhuselekileyo kwaye ubhale iikhonteyina okanye iingxowa ezinamagama ohlukeneyo nomhla wokuvuna.

3.Coca amasimi kwaye ulungiselele kakuhle ngaphambi kokutyala

Umlimi kufuneka alime kwangoko emva kwesivuno sangaphambili - ngakumbi ukuba umhlaba usafumile.

Ukulima kuqala okanye ngokuyintloko. Sebenzisa i-disc okanye i-moldboard plow ukubulala ukhula kwaye ufake intsalela yezityalo, Kukhethwa iiveki ezi-6 ukuya kwezintlanu ngaphambi kokutyala ngobuninzi be 10 i-CM.

Ukulima okwesibini. Sika yonke intsimi ngediski okanye i-tin harows ubuncinci kabini ukwenza ubungakanani obuncinci beekhodi. Ukulima okwesibini kufanele kube ziiveki ezi-2–3 phambi kokutyala kunye nokukhula kokugqibela 1 kwiveki ngaphambi kokutyala ngobunzulu obuyi-5-7,5 cm. Ukulungiswa kweebhendi, yitshabalalisa imigodi, lungisa nayiphi na imingxunya kunye nokuqhekeka, ndibuyisele imithwalo. Iibhanti kufuneka ubuncinci 0.5 m phezulu kwaye 1 m ububanzi.Intaba elungiselelwe kakuhle neleveziwe inika iyunifomu, Isityalo esisempilweni esinokukhuphisana nokhula, sebenzisa amanzi amancinci, kwaye unike izivuno eziphezulu ngexabiso eliphantsi. Intsimi elungiselelwe kakuhle: Iingubo ezincinci zomhlaba ezininzi ukunika ukunxibelelana kwembewu elungileyo-ubungakanani be-clod nobungakanani bembewu ziyafana; Akukho ukhula; Kunzima ukuba ngumlimi 10 cm ukumisa ukungena kwamanzi;Inqanaba kunye nomphezulu ogudileyo emva kokusebenza; kunye neebhloko ezenziwe kakuhle.Ukuvula intsimi kuya kunika amanzi angaphezulu, ukumiselwa okungcono kwezityalo, kunye nolawulo olungcono lokhula. Ukudunwa komhlaba kufuneka kwenziwe ubuncinci kwiintsuku ezi-1-2 ngaphambi kokuhlwayela imbewu ukuvumela amanzi ukuba acace xa kusenziwa imbewu ngqo.

4.Tyala ngexesha

Ukutyala izityalo ngexesha kuya kunceda ukuvelisa ukukhula okukhawulezayo, Isityalo esifanayo siya kuba nezivuno eziphezulu kwaye siya kuba nakho ukukhuphisana ngcono nokhula kunye nezinambuzane. Elona xesha lilungileyo lokutyala kuxhomekeke kwindawo, ezahlukeneyo, ukubakho kwamanzi, Elona xesha lilungileyo lokuvuna. Ilayisi linokufuduswa ligqithiselwe kwi-nursery okanye kwi-imbewu ngqo emasimini. Izityalo ezithunyelwe kwenye indawo ziya kuthatha ixesha elincinci kwintsimi yemveliso kodwa ziintsuku ezili-10 ukuya kweli-15 ubude bexesha lesityalo. Kuzo zombini iimeko, ibhedi yembewu elungiselelwe kakuhle iyafuneka.

Kwibala lokutyala ngokuthe ngqo:

  1. Lungisa intsimi ngokulima ubuncinci kabini kwaye uyihlabe kube kanye-thelekisa isayizi yembewu kunye nobungakanani bembewu.
  2. Inqanaba lomphezulu womhlaba.
  3. Faka isicelo kwaye ufake isichumiso esisiseko ngaphambi kokulima okokugqibela okanye 10 kwiintsuku emva kokusekwa.

Imbewu ngqo yembewu:

  1. Ukuhluma kwembewu kwangaphambili. Thobela imbewu ye 24 iiyure kwaye drain for 24 iiyure emthunzini ngaphambi kokuba zisasazwe ngokulinganayo ngaphezulu komhlaba omanzi.
  2. Sasaza imbewu ekhulwe ngaphambili 100 kg / ha
  3. Vumela amanzi angaphezulu ukuba agxobhoze okanye ahlukane nomhlaba ngokwendalo
  4. Gcina umhlaba ungumanzi ngokongeza amanzi
  5. Yongeza amanzi ngokusisigxina kwiintsuku ezili-10–15 emva kokusekwa okanye ngo-2 ukuya ku-3- inqanaba lamagqabi.
  6. Faka isichumiso se basal emva kokuba kongezwe amanzi asisigxina.

Ukomisa imbewu ngqo

  1. Ukusasaza imbewu eyomileyo imbewu kwi 100 i-kg / ha okanye umatshini wokufukula imbewu 80 kg / ha kunye 20 mm ubunzulu
  2. Faka isichumiso esisiseko ngokugrumba imbewu
  3. Yigqume imbewu yokusasaza kunye nesichumisi ngokuhluza okukhanyayo
  4. Umkhukula weflash kuze 15 kwiintsuku emva kokuvela okanye inqanaba legqabi le-2 emva koko wongeza amanzi asisigxina.

Kwizityalo ezitshintshiweyo

  1. Khetha indawo enkulisa 1/10 ngokobukhulu bendawo yokutyala ekucetywayo.
  2. Lungisa i-nursery ngokulima okungenani kabini kwaye uyihlabe kube kanye.
  3. Inqanaba lomphezulu womhlaba kwaye ubeke imigca yokuhambisa amanzi kuyo yonke intsimi.
  4. Ukutshala kunye nokuhlwayela. Thobela imbewu ye 24 iiyure kwaye drain for 24 iiyure emthunzini. Sasaza imbewu kwi-nursery ngokufanayo, ngaphezulu komhlaba ogcinwe amanzi.
  5. Faka imbewu: 30-40kg imbewu / indawo yokutyalwa.
  6. Faka isichumisi samachiza kunye ne-organic organic enkundleni ngaphambi kokulima kokugqibela.
  7. Ukudlulisa ubudala: iintlobo zexesha elifutshane-eliphakathi ziyafuna 20-30 Iintsuku kunye neentlobo zexesha elide ziyafuneka 20-40 kwiintsuku emva kokutyala.
  8. Tshintshela kwimigca kwiindawo ezifulelwe amanzi nezigutyungelwe ngamanzi.
  9. Gcina isigubungelo samanzi

5.Ukhula kwangoko

Ukhula lukhuphisana ngokuthe ngqo kunye nezityalo zerayisi kunye nokunciphisa isivuno selayisi. Ngamnye 1 kg into eyomileyo yokhula ilingana 1 ukulahleka kwengqolowa. Ukhula lubangela ilahleko enkulu yesivuno ngaphakathi kweentsuku ezingama-20-50 zokuqala emva kokutyalwa kwesityalo. Ukhula emva kokuqalisa panicle kungabalulekile nasekuthinteleni ukhula oluphalaza imbewu kwizityalo ezizayo.

Ulawulo lokhula olusebenzayo

  • Ukulima kunye nokuhluza kumhlaba wokunyibilikisa kufuneka kwenziwe okungenani iintsuku ezili-10 ukuya kwezi-14 ngaphandle okanye emva kwemvula.
  • Ukufika komgangatho olungileyo kunciphisa ukukhula kokhula ngenxa yokuba uninzi lwengca alunangxaki ukukhula phakathi kwamanzi.
  • Khetha iindidi ezinamandla okuqala.
  • Sebenzisa imbewu ecocekileyo yerayisi engenambewu yokhula.
  • Faka isicelo samanzi kwangoko-ukhula alunakukhula emanzini.
  • Ukulusa kuqala kuqala kwiiveki ezi-2 ukuya kwezintathu emva kokusekwa kwaye okwesibini kwenye iiveki ezi-2 ukuya kwezi-2. Ukhula ngaphambi kwesichumisi isicelo.
  • Sebenzisa i-herbicides. Chonga ukhula ngokuchanekileyo kwaye usebenzise i-herbidal efanelekileyo njengoko kucetyiswayo kwilebula. • Chitha xa ukhula luncinci.
  • Faka isicelo herbicides ngaphambi kokuvela ngaphambi kokutyala.
  • Faka isicelo herbicides emva kokuvela emva kokuqapheleka ngomonakalo wesityalo.
  • Iintsholongwane zinetyhefu; ukuba azisetyenziswanga ngokufanelekileyo zinokubangela iingxaki zempilo kunye nokusingqongileyo. Iilebheli ngokucacileyo kwaye ugcine ngaphandle kokufikelela kwabantwana. • Soloko usebenzisa impahla ekhuselayo xa utshiza.
  • Musa ukunxiba iilokhwe zemvula xa ukutshiza kuba oku kunyusa ukubila.

6.Umchumisi ngexesha elifanelekileyo

Uninzi lomhlaba lubonelela ngesixa esilinganiselweyo sezondlo kwisityalo, Kungoko kufuneka kwenziwe isichumisi ukuze kunyuswe isivuno sengqolowa. Ngamanye amaxesha, Izichumisi nazo zongezwa ukuphucula imeko yomhlaba. Inani kunye nodidi lwesichumisi olusetyenzisiweyo lugqitywe kwinto yokuba 1 Ithoni yengqolowa iyakususa 15 kg initrogen (N), 2-3 kg yephosphorus (P), kunye ne-15-20 kg ye potassium (K). La maxabiso asisiseko kufuneka eguqulwe ngohlobo lomhlaba, ixesha, imeko yezityalo, iimeko zemozulu ezikhoyo, kunye nokusebenza ngokuchanekileyo. Ukusetyenziswa kwesichumisi esifanelekileyo:

  • Sebenzisa isichumisi sezinto eziphilayo (umgquba, umgquba, umququ, khumbula, shiya amagqabi) xa kunokwenzeka, ngakumbi kwiindawo zokugcina abantwana.
  • Faka isichumiso ngokohlobo lomhlaba kunye nesivuno esifanelekileyo. Njengesikhokelo, a 2 t / ha isivuno kumhlaba odongwe lomhlaba uya kufuna 20 kg N kwaye 5 kg P. Imihlaba yesanti inokufuna enye i-10-16 kg K. Phinda ezi ziphakamiso ze 3 t / ha isivuno esilindelekileyo.
  • Faka isicelo sonke P, K, kwaye 10% N ngokulinganayo kwaye ubandakanye ngaphambi nje kokuhlwayelwa okanye ukutyalwa. Kwizityalo ezisasaza imbewu ngqo, kulungile ukusebenzisa iintsuku ezili-10 ukuya kweli-10 emva kokusekwa xa kukho amanzi emasimini.
  • Faka isicelo okusele N (urea) ngaphakathi 2 iinxalenye ezilinganayo kwi 30 iintsuku kunye neentsuku ezingama-50-60 (uvalo lokuqalisa) emva kokuvela. • Kwizityalo ezime kakuhle, Faka isichumisi samachiza kuphela emanzini amileyo kwaye ngokulinganayo kuwo wonke umhlaba.
  • Musa ukufaka amaxabiso aphezulu esichumisi kwiindidi zesintu njengoko zinokuba nempendulo encinci kwaye zibangele indawo yokuhlala.
  • Sukusebenzisa isichumisi seekhemikhali ukuba ufuna ngaphezulu 5 kg paddy ukuhlawula 1 kg kg yesichumisi. • Izichumisi ezingalunganga kufuneka zigcinwe kwindawo eyomileyo nepholileyo engafikelelekiyo ebantwaneni.

7.Ukulawulwa kwezinambuzane ezifanelekileyo kunye nolawulo lwezifo

Amafama aphulukana nomndilili ophakathi 37% yesityalo sabo selayisi kwizinambuzane nakwizifo minyaka le. Ukongeza kulawulo lwezityalo ezilungileyo, Ukuchonga ngexesha elifanelekileyo nangokuchanekileyo kunokunciphisa kakhulu ilahleko. Olona lawulo lubalulekileyo lwezinambuzane kunye nezifo kukuthintela. Ukunciphisa umda wezinambuzane nezifo kwisityalo selayisi, kunoku kulandelwa ezi ngcebiso zilandelayo:

  1. Ziqhelanise nokucoca kakuhle kwezixhobo.
  2. Coca umhlaba phakathi kwamaxesha onyaka ngokuphatha iindiza kunye neeratoon, nangokugcina & ukulungisa iibhendi.
  3. Sebenzisa imbewu ecocekileyo kunye neentlobo ezichasayo. • Imbewu eqinisekisiweyo iyacetyiswa. Ukuba imbewu eqinisekisiweyo ayifumaneki, Sebenzisa imbewu ecocekileyo ngaphandle kwembewu edaliweyo, Ukhula lwembewu okanye ezinye iintlobo zerayisi ezixutywe. Sebenzisa ixesha elifutshane kunye nemicu yokuloba yokucutha izinambuzane.
  4. Tyala ngexesha elinye njengabamelwane bakho (okanye ngaphakathi a 2 ifestile yeveki) ukunciphisa izinambuzane, isifo, intaka, kunye noxinzelelo lwe rat kumhlaba ngamnye.
  5. Sukusebenzisa ngaphezulu isichumisi. Ukulandela iingcebiso zesichumisi esithile kubalulekile kuba initrogen ephezulu inokunyusa uxinzelelo kwizitshabalalisi ezithile nakwizifo.
  6. Khuthaza iintshaba zendalo. • Ukusetyenziswa kakhulu kwesibulala zinambuzane kuxhaphake kakhulu kumafama kwaye kungakhokelela ekuqhambukeni kwezinambuzane. • Iintshaba zendalo zezitshabalalisi zerayisi zibulawa xa kufakwa amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi.
  7. Musa ukusebenzisa isibulala zinambuzane ngaphakathi 40 iintsuku zokutyala. • Izityalo zerayisi zinokuphinda zivele kumonakalo wokuqala ngaphandle kokuchaphazela isivuno. Fumana ulwazi olufanelekileyo ngezifo ezithile ezifuna ukulawulwa kwangoko. Ukuba kukho izinambuzane okanye izifo kwizifo, Kubalulekile ukuyichonga ngokuchanekileyo ingxaki. Ngoncedo lokufumanisa isifo, Funa icebiso kwingcali.
  8. Xa uthatha isigqibo sokusebenzisa imichiza yokulawula izinambuzane kunye nolawulo lwezifo, kubalulekile ukuba: Sebenzisa izixhobo zokutshiza ezigcinwe kakuhle; Faka isicelo kwi-dosage evunywa ngumvelisi; kwaye • Landela imilinganiselo yokhuseleko yokuxuba kunye nokutshiza.

8.Vuna ngexesha

Ukuvuna isityalo ngexesha kubaluleke kakhulu ukwandisa isivuno kunye nomgangatho wokudla okuziinkozo. Izilimo ezivunwe kwangethuba kakhulu ziya kuba neenkozo ezininzi ezingafakwanga kwaye zingavuthi.. Ukuba izilimo zivunwa kade, ilahleko enkulu iya kwenzeka ngokubetha nokuhlaselwa kweentaka. Umgangatho uya kuncipha kwakhona ngenxa yemozulu yokudla okuziinkozo, kukhokelela ekwaphukeni nasekunciphiseni ngenxa yombala weenkozo ongafunekiyo. Ukulima kufuneka kuvunwe nini:

  • Ukufuma okuziinkozo kuphakathi kwe-20-22%, iqhelekile malunga 30 kwiintsuku emva kokudubula;
  • 80-85% yeengqolowa ikotshwe;
  • Amabele kwindawo engezantsi yepaneli anzima, ayithambile; kwaye
  • Amagaqa aqinile kodwa angaqhekeka ngokulula xa encanca phakathi kwamazinyo.

Emva kokusika, wandise umgangatho weenkozo nge:

  • Ukuqinisekisa ukuba iipanicles azichukumisi umhlaba okanye zibekwe emanzini;
  • Ukunciphisa ixesha iipaneli ezisikiweyo zihlala ziinyanda ezinkulu kwintsimi-iyaphula ngaphakathi 24 iiyure zokusika;
  • Ukomisa iinkozo ngokukhawuleza emva kokubhula;
  • Ukuguqula okanye ukuchukumisa amabala ubuncinci kanye ngeyure xa ukumiswa kwelanga ukufezekisa ukomisa okufanayo;
  • Ukucima kwelanga kwiitayile okanye iipads zokucoca ukomisa;
  • Ukugcina ubukhulu boluhlu lweenkozo ku-3-5 cm;
  • Ukumboza okusanhlamvu ngeentsuku ezishushu ngexesha laphakathi kwemini ukunqanda ukufudumeza kakhulu, kwaye ukugubungela kwangoko ukuba kuqala ukuna;
  • Ukucoca iinkozo ngokuvula kwakhona emva kokomiswa; Ukugcina irayisi kupholile, yomile, nendawo ecocekileyo-ngokukhethekileyo kwizitya ezitywiniweyo zembewu.

Ngexesha lokukhula kwerayisi ,umlimi udinga isityalo paddy science.it iyimfuneko ukukhetha iintlobo zokuxhathisa kwesifo okuqinileyo ngokweemeko zendawo, kunye nokuqinisekisa ubukho bokuzala kunye nomsebenzi onamandla wokuhlwayela ngokwexesha elithile lokutyala. Ngaxeshanye, izithole, ukuchumisa nokunkcenkceshela kufuneka kwenziwe kakuhle ngokokukhula okuqinisekileyo okunyusa isivuno selayisi kunye nomgangatho.